Symptoms triggered by overbreathing
Learn and practice breathing
Ventilation and its measurement
Regulation of CO2 allocation
Acid-base balance, hydrogen ion concentration and pH value
Reflexive balancing breathing
Internal respiration is about transporting oxygen in the blood from the lungs to the cells and transporting metabolic carbon dioxide from the tissue cells into the blood and lungs.
Once CO2 and H2O enter the interstitial fluid (around the cells) as a result of cellular respiration, they diffuse into the plasma of the blood. About 90 percent of the CO2 then diffuses into the red blood cells. The balance of about 10 percent remains dissolved in the plasma, the dissolved PCO2. The presence of CO2 in the red blood cell, as we will see, is critical. for oxygen distribution. Carbon dioxide is hydrated (combined with H2O) to form carbonic acid: CO2 + H2O ↔ H2CO3.Carbonic acid dissociates (decomposes) into hydrogen and bicarbonate ions: H2CO3 ↔ H+HCO3. The increased presence of hydrogen ions, H+ means that the red blood cells become less alkaline, i.e. the pH of the fluid (cytosol) in red.blood cells drop. The bicarbonates, HCO3, diffuse into the blood where they buffer acids, such as lactic acid. The amount of CO2 produced by the tissues determines exactly how much carbonic acid is formed, and thus the pH of the red blood cells, as well as the amount of bicarbonate that enters the plasma. The presence of CO2 gas and the drop in pH inside erythrocytes independently and jointly alter the spatial constitution of hemoglobin, affecting its affinity for oxygen, i.e., it releases its oxygen more readily and increases plasma PO2 levels; this change is called the Bohr effect.Thus, hemoglobin distributes its O2 more readily to the tissues that need it, while buffering hydrogen.Ions to restore normal pH in red blood cells. Reduced pH and increased PCO2 not only predispose hemoglobin to release.
oxygen, but also nitric oxide (a gas), a potent vasodilator. The result is increased blood volume and blood flow,which increases oxygen and glucose supply to cells that produce more CO2.Increased PCO2 levels lead to increased (1) oxygen supply (more blood), (2) glucose supply (more blood), (3) PO2(O2/ml blood) and bicarbonates to buffer acids. Proper PCO2 regulation means that the chemistry of red blood cells the surrounding tissue metabolism. Overbreathing reduces dissolved PCO2 and thus CO2 and carbonic acid in red blood cells. This means reduced hydrogen ion concentration, increased pH in red blood cells. The effect on hemoglobin is twofold: (1) increased affinity for O2 (Bohr effect), reducing the likelihood of release into plasma, and (2) decreased release of nitric oxide, resulting in vasoconstriction. This results in less oxygen (local hypoxia), less glucose (local hypoglycemia), and reduced buffering capacity for the tissues in need. Reduced nitric oxide also increases platelet levels, their aggregation and \”adhesion\” tendency, increasing the likelihood of blood clotting.